Last updated:2009 March 09 Monday 06:23:02.109 Central Standard Time = GMT/UTC-06:002009 March 09 Monday 12:23:02.109 Greenwich Mean Time = GMT/UTCJULIAN DATE= 2454900This is a very difficult math problem to get the ultimate "perfect" answer - that is, the absolute minimum distance sum. The technique used is"simulated annealing". I'll be continually running it and trying to improve the answer.

end of fileIndiana High School Basketball old-fashioned ONE-CLASS SectionalsThis file and its name were inspired by and are my way of honoring the great novel byJohn R. Tunisin1944called"Yea! Wildcats!". It was set in Indiana and was based on Tunis's experiences and observations as he actually lived with the family of a key player on one of the teams for a whole season. AndBob Hammel'ssuperb real-life depiction of how it used to be is the non-fiction equivalent of Tunis's work. The title is"HOOSIERS CLASSIFIED - Indiana's Love Affair with One-Class Basketball", written in1997. The above two books should be required reading for anyone who truly wants to understand whatIndiana High School Basketballand itstournamenttruly mean. No one who reads them would ever want the tournament to be anything other than the way it wasup thru 1997 - the ONE CLASS all-comers waywith thesectionalsset up to haveneighboring teamsandlet the chips fall where they may!

The1<=>64 listingof thesectionalsis now in roughlyNORTH-SOUTH order.The combining of the sectionals into regionals will be done in the next stage. And the teams are listed within each sectional in thatsame NORTH-SOUTH manner.That was done by giving teams their code numbers based on theirlatitude, which of course indicates theirNORTH-SOUTHpositioning. The goal is tominimize the total mileage- that is, have theteams as close together as possible.By mileage, I'm referring to the sum of the mileages from the 64 sectionals. Themileagefor a givensectionalis thesum of the distances between all possible pairs of teams in a sectional.In a 6-team sectional there are 6*5 / 2 =15 possible pairs of teams.In a 7-team sectional there are 7*6 / 2 =21 possible pairs of teams.46 sectionals with 6 teams = 276 teams 46 * 15 = 690 pairs 18 sectionals with 7 teams = 126 teams 18 * 21 = 378 pairs ------------- ----------- 402 teams 1068 pairs And the numbers to the left of each team's name are simply the code numbers used by the program for each team. They have no other significance. And as mentioned above, thesecode numbersare in order oflatitude.Thus for example, inSectional #3, you'll findFremontwith acode number of 1which means that it is themost northernschool in Indiana. And inSectional #63you'll findSouth Spencerwith acode numberof402which means it is themost southernschool in the state.Each team's current class is shown just for interest. A=4A, B=3A, C=2A, D=1AThe new mileage is higher than in some earlier versions of several years ago. That's because more accurate locations are now being used for each high school. In the previous versions, zipcodes were used to determine each school's location which in turn were used to create alatitudeandlongitude.So for example, if two schools were in the same city and had the same zipcode, this would have had them having zero distance between them, which is obviously wrong. But now, the actual individual addresses for each school are being used which gives theprecise coordinatesoflatitudeandlongitudewhich can then be used to determine veryaccurate estimatesfor thedistances between each pair of schools.The suggestion here is that the host role of the sectionals would rotate among the teams so thateach team gets to host its sectional every 6(7) years.

total miles=11684.1294 total pairs=1068 average miles between pairs of teams=10.94Further Explanation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 1 total miles=86 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=720 Mish. Marian B $ 16 Mishawaka A $ 15 SB Adams A $ 2 SB Clay A $ 18 SB Riley A $ 6 SB St. Joseph's B $ 13 SB Washington A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 2 total miles=75 average distance between teams=5 pairs=15 teams=624 Concord A $ 8 Elk. Central A $ 17 Elk. Christian D $ 5 Elk. Memorial A $ 23 Jimtown C $ 11 Penn A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 3 total miles=88 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=721 East Chicago A $ 12 Hamm. Clark B $ 36 Hamm. Gavit B $ 26 Hamm. Noll C $ 29 Hammond B $ 40 Munster A $ 9 Whiting D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 4 total miles=188 average distance between teams=13 pairs=15 teams=630 LaPorte A $ 4 MC Marquette D $ 10 Michigan City A $ 7 New Prairie B $ 58 S. Central (UM) D $ 45 Westville D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 5 total miles=221 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=669 Central Noble C $ 62 East Noble A $ 3 Howe Military D $ 19 Lakeland B $ 22 Prairie Hts. C $ 27 Westview C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 6 total miles=82 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=731 Bowman Academy D $ 42 Calumet B $ 38 Gary Roosevelt B $ 32 Gary West A $ 47 Griffith B $ 34 Hamm. Morton A $ 43 Highland A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 7 total miles=95 average distance between teams=5 pairs=21 teams=751 Andrean B $ 46 Gary Wallace B $ 28 Gary Wirt B $ 49 Hobart A $ 37 Lake Station C $ 52 Merrillville A $ 39 River Forest C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 8 total miles=158 average distance between teams=11 pairs=15 teams=644 Bethany Christian D $ 50 Fairfield C $ 35 Goshen A $ 60 NorthWood B $ 14 Northridge A $ 66 Wawasee B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL# 9 total miles=217 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=625 Angola B $ 67 DeKalb A $ 63 Eastside C $ 1 Fremont C $ 73 Garrett C $ 48 Hamilton D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#10 total miles=123 average distance between teams=8 pairs=15 teams=633 Chesterton A $ 70 Morgan Twp. D $ 41 Portage A $ 53 Valparaiso A $ 54 Washington Twp. D $ 55 Wheeler C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#11 total miles=203 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=661 Bremen C $ 59 Glenn B $ 56 LaVille C $ 71 Oregon-Davis D $ 74 Plymouth B $ 79 Triton D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#12 total miles=162 average distance between teams=11 pairs=15 teams=668 Boone Grove C $ 65 Crown Point A $ 72 Hanover Cent. C $ 77 Hebron C $ 57 Lake Central A $ 80 Lowell A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#13 total miles=285 average distance between teams=19 pairs=15 teams=683 Churubusco C $ 91 Columbia City B $ 113 Manchester C $ 84 Warsaw A $ 64 West Noble B $ 101 Whitko B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#14 total miles=252 average distance between teams=17 pairs=15 teams=681 Knox B $ 78 Kouts D $ 76 LaCrosse D $ 88 North Judson C $ 114 West Central D $ 107 Winamac C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#15 total miles=182 average distance between teams=12 pairs=15 teams=682 Argos D $ 102 Caston D $ 85 Culver C $ 86 Culver Military B $ 104 Rochester B $ 95 Tipp. Valley B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#16 total miles=76 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=789 Carroll (FW) A $ 96 FW Concordia B $ 93 FW Dwenger B $ 100 FW Keystone D $ 99 FW North A $ 92 FW Northrop A $ 97 FW Snider A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#17 total miles=169 average distance between teams=11 pairs=15 teams=698 FW Blackhawk D $ 116 Heritage B $ 75 Lakewood Park Chr. D $ 87 Leo B $ 103 New Haven B $ 94 Woodlan C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#18 total miles=99 average distance between teams=5 pairs=21 teams=7105 FW Canterbury D $ 111 FW Elmhurst B $ 110 FW Luers C $ 106 FW South A $ 115 FW Wayne B $ 112 Harding B $ 108 Homestead A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#19 total miles=339 average distance between teams=23 pairs=15 teams=6142 Benton Central B $ 90 Kank. Valley B $ 109 North Newton C $ 117 Rensselaer B $ 125 South Newton D $ 133 Tri-County D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#20 total miles=183 average distance between teams=12 pairs=15 teams=6118 Huntington North A $ 122 Northfield C $ 140 Oak Hill C $ 132 Southwood C $ 126 Wabash C $ 130 White's D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#21 total miles=208 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6129 Adams Central C $ 123 Bellmont B $ 134 Bluffton C $ 124 Norwell B $ 138 South Adams C $ 139 Southern Wells D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#22 total miles=255 average distance between teams=17 pairs=15 teams=6143 Carroll (Flora) C $ 141 Delphi C $ 136 Frontier D $ 119 North White D $ 120 Pioneer D $ 131 Twin Lakes B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#23 total miles=196 average distance between teams=13 pairs=15 teams=6135 Cass C $ 128 Logansport A $ 137 Maconaquah B $ 121 North Miami C $ 146 Northwestern B $ 127 Peru B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#24 total miles=152 average distance between teams=10 pairs=15 teams=6157 Blackford B $ 144 Eastbrook B $ 147 Lakeview Chr. D $ 160 Madison-Grant C $ 145 Marion A $ 149 Mississinewa C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#25 total miles=126 average distance between teams=8 pairs=15 teams=6148 Harrison (WL) A $ 159 Lafayette Cent. Catholic D $ 158 Lafayette Jeff A $ 162 McCutcheon A $ 155 Rossville D $ 152 W. Lafayette B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#26 total miles=148 average distance between teams=10 pairs=15 teams=6150 Eastern (Gtwn.) C $ 151 Kokomo A $ 153 Taylor C $ 170 Tipton C $ 161 Tri-Central D $ 156 Western B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#27 total miles=167 average distance between teams=11 pairs=15 teams=6172 Alexandria C $ 185 And. Highland A $ 188 Daleville D $ 165 Elwood C $ 173 Frankton C $ 168 Wes-Del D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#28 total miles=140 average distance between teams=7 pairs=21 teams=7190 Cowan D $ 169 Delta B $ 176 Muncie Burris C $ 175 Muncie Central A $ 182 Muncie South B $ 180 Wapahani C $ 178 Yorktown B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#29 total miles=218 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=6164 Clinton Central C $ 171 Clinton Prairie D $ 166 Frankfort B $ 196 Lebanon B $ 184 Sheridan C $ 195 Western Boone B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#30 total miles=265 average distance between teams=18 pairs=15 teams=6167 Attica D $ 200 Crawfordsville B $ 189 Fountain Cent. C $ 187 N. Montgomery B $ 163 Seeger C $ 186 Southmont B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#31 total miles=258 average distance between teams=17 pairs=15 teams=6154 Jay County A $ 177 Monroe Cent. D $ 211 Northeastern C $ 198 Rand. Southern D $ 174 Union City D $ 179 Winchester C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#32 total miles=177 average distance between teams=8 pairs=21 teams=7205 Carmel A $ 206 Fishers A $ 201 Guerin Catholic C $ 181 Hamilton Hts. B $ 207 Hamilton SE A $ 197 Noblesville A $ 194 Westfield A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#33 total miles=156 average distance between teams=10 pairs=15 teams=6192 Anderson A $ 193 Lapel C $ 191 Liberty Christian School D $ 216 Mt. Vernon (Fort.) B $ 204 Pendleton Hts. A $ 202 Shenandoah C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#34 total miles=108 average distance between teams=5 pairs=21 teams=7215 Brebeuf B $ 223 I. Broad Ripple A $ 214 N. Central(Indpls.) A $ 219 Park Tudor C $ 220 Pike A $ 209 University D $ 208 Zionsville A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#35 total miles=173 average distance between teams=12 pairs=15 teams=6203 Blue River D $ 238 Cambridge City C $ 212 Hagerstown C $ 213 New Castle A $ 231 Tri D $ 199 Union (Modoc) D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#36 total miles=86 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=7218 Heritage Christian C $ 228 I. Arlington A $ 226 I. Cathedral A $ 224 I. Chatard B $ 225 Lawr. Central A $ 217 Lawr. North A $ 246 Warren Central A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#37 total miles=242 average distance between teams=16 pairs=15 teams=6183 Covington D $ 210 N. Vermillion D $ 249 Riverton Parke D $ 255 Rockville D $ 265 S. Vermillion B $ 227 Turkey Run D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#38 total miles=120 average distance between teams=8 pairs=15 teams=6259 Avon A $ 251 Ben Davis A $ 221 Bethesda Christian School D $ 232 Brownsburg A $ 244 Covenant Chr.(Indpls.) C $ 222 Tri-West C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#39 total miles=68 average distance between teams=3 pairs=21 teams=7250 I. Attucks D $ 253 I. Metropolitan D $ 237 I. Northwest B $ 240 I. Ritter C $ 257 I. Washington C $ 229 International D $ 243 Speedway C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#40 total miles=81 average distance between teams=4 pairs=21 teams=7241 Fall Creek D $ 254 I. Howe B $ 260 I. Manual A $ 248 I. Scecina C $ 252 I. Tech A $ 233 I. Tindley D $ 230 Indiana Deaf D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#41 total miles=171 average distance between teams=11 pairs=15 teams=6235 Eastern Hancock C $ 245 Greenfield A $ 242 Knightstown C $ 269 Morristown D $ 256 Morton Mem. D $ 276 Rushville B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#42 total miles=227 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=6239 Centerville C $ 274 Connersville A $ 293 Franklin Co. B $ 236 Richmond A $ 234 Seton Catholic D $ 275 Union County C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#43 total miles=157 average distance between teams=7 pairs=21 teams=7262 Beech Grove B $ 268 Franklin Cent. A $ 267 I. Lutheran D $ 264 I. Roncalli B $ 261 New Palestine B $ 270 Southport A $ 278 Triton Central C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#44 total miles=204 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6271 Cascade C $ 285 Cloverdale C $ 258 Danville B $ 273 Greencastle B $ 247 North Putnam C $ 281 South Putnam C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#45 total miles=174 average distance between teams=12 pairs=15 teams=6266 Decatur Central A $ 292 Eminence D $ 296 Martinsville A $ 282 Monrovia C $ 277 Mooresville A $ 263 Plainfield A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#46 total miles=164 average distance between teams=8 pairs=21 teams=7283 Center Grove A $ 289 Franklin A $ 280 Greenwood A $ 279 Greenwood Christian D $ 298 Indian Creek C $ 272 Perry Meridian A $ 284 Whiteland A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#47 total miles=278 average distance between teams=13 pairs=21 teams=7306 Clay City D $ 309 N. Central (Farm.) D $ 287 Northview A $ 297 TH Holy Cross D $ 288 TH North A $ 295 TH South A $ 290 West Vigo B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#48 total miles=273 average distance between teams=13 pairs=21 teams=7314 Columbus East A $ 310 Columbus North A $ 301 Edinburgh D $ 304 Hauser C $ 286 Shelbyville B $ 294 So'western (Shel.) D $ 291 Waldron D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#49 total miles=207 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6303 Batesville B $ 302 Greensburg B $ 317 Jac-Cen-Del D $ 299 North Decatur C $ 300 Oldenburg Academy D $ 312 South Decatur D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#50 total miles=227 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=6313 Blgtn. North A $ 316 Blgtn. South A $ 311 Brown County B $ 325 Eastern Greene C $ 308 Edgewood B $ 305 Owen Valley B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#51 total miles=226 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=6307 East Central A $ 320 Lawrenceburg C $ 318 Milan D $ 331 Rising Sun D $ 322 South Dearborn B $ 323 South Ripley C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#52 total miles=281 average distance between teams=13 pairs=21 teams=7327 Bloomfield C $ 324 Linton C $ 334 North Daviess D $ 315 Shakamak D $ 319 Sullivan B $ 321 Union (Dugger) D $ 326 White River Valley D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#53 total miles=203 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6341 Austin C $ 332 Brownstown C $ 337 Crothersville D $ 335 Medora D $ 330 Seymour A $ 329 Trinity Lutheran D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#54 total miles=269 average distance between teams=18 pairs=15 teams=6328 Jennings Co. A $ 338 Madison B $ 339 Madison Shawe Memorial D $ 356 New Washington D $ 343 So'western (Han.) C $ 340 Switzerland Co. C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#55 total miles=192 average distance between teams=13 pairs=15 teams=6336 North Knox C $ 348 South Knox C $ 346 Vin. Rivet D $ 350 Vincennes B $ 351 Washington B $ 352 Washington Cath. D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#56 total miles=221 average distance between teams=15 pairs=15 teams=6333 Bedford NL A $ 342 Mitchell B $ 349 Orleans D $ 358 Paoli C $ 357 Springs Valley D $ 355 W. Washington C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#57 total miles=216 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6361 Borden D $ 362 Charlestown B $ 360 Eastern (Pekin) C $ 359 Henryville D $ 354 Salem B $ 344 Scottsburg B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#58 total miles=248 average distance between teams=17 pairs=15 teams=6353 Barr-Reeve D $ 367 Jasper B $ 345 Loogootee D $ 363 NE Dubois D $ 347 Shoals D $ 378 Southridge B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#59 total miles=119 average distance between teams=6 pairs=21 teams=7372 Christian Academy(NewAlbany) D $ 376 Clarksville C $ 374 Jeffersonville A $ 377 New Albany A $ 375 Providence C $ 364 Rock Creek Chr. D $ 366 Silver Creek B $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#60 total miles=244 average distance between teams=16 pairs=15 teams=6389 Boonville B $ 379 Gibson Southern B $ 365 Pike Central B $ 368 Princeton B $ 383 Tecumseh D $ 370 Wood Memorial D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#61 total miles=213 average distance between teams=14 pairs=15 teams=6382 Corydon B $ 371 Crawford Co. B $ 369 Floyd Central A $ 380 Lanesville D $ 373 North Harrison B $ 388 S. Central (Eliz.) D $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#62 total miles=200 average distance between teams=13 pairs=15 teams=6390 Ev. Central A $ 393 Ev. Mater Dei C $ 396 Ev. Reitz A $ 400 Mt. Vernon (Posey) B $ 385 New Harmony D $ 384 North Posey C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#63 total miles=279 average distance between teams=19 pairs=15 teams=6401 Cannelton D $ 381 Forest Park C $ 387 Heritage Hills B $ 386 Perry Central C $ 402 South Spencer C $ 399 Tell City C $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________SECTIONAL#64 total miles=67 average distance between teams=4 pairs=15 teams=6394 Castle A $ 398 Ev. Bosse B $ 391 Ev. Day D $ 395 Ev. Harrison A $ 397 Ev. Memorial B $ 392 Ev. North A $ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________Explanation of DataIt's really hard to get the exact solution other than literally checking every possible combination but with 402 Indiana high school(347 in NCAA division I) teams, you can see that the factorial issue soon makes that impossible on even the best PC's and in fact for even the fastest super-computers. In fact, for the Indiana High Schools, based on there being 46 sectionals with 6 teams and 18 sectionals with 7 teams, I think it would be: 402! ____________________________________ (6!)^46 * (7!)^18 And the natural logarithm of the answer is 1556.3926512477 and thus the logbase10 of the answer is 675.9327401116 which means the number of possible combinations is 10^675.9327401116 which is an amazingly large number! It would be actually be an exact integer, but I don't have access to a computer that can handle such large integers. I think only the latest "super computers" can. For college basketball, it would be 347! ____________________________________ ˜ 10^578.3858179936 which is also a number beyond the capacity to (5!)^37 * (6!)^27 simply "try all the possibilities". NOTE: I originally had underestimated these quantities by having (incorrectly) an additional factor of 64! in the denominators. An observant reader named Loren Maxwell alerted me to this and so it's been corrected. Remember, there are 31.5576 million seconds in an average year or ˜ 3.16 * 10^7 seconds. Thus for even a super-computer to check every possibility in one-year, it would have to evaluate more than 10^668 possibilities per second for the high schools and more than 10^570 per second for the colleges. So the simulated annealing technique is used to avoid the impossible task of literally checking every possibility. It was first developed in the early 1950s at Los Alamos by guys like Edward Teller when they (Metropolis, N.; Rosenbluth, A. W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Teller, A. H.; and Teller, E. "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines." J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092, 1953. ) were working on the hydrogen bomb. I was in my early oughts then and so was only consulting with them on an informal basis :-) (just kidding!) at that time. http://scienze-como.uninsubria.it/bressanini/montecarlo-history/index.html > Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines > N. Metropolis, A.W.Rosenbluth, M.N.Rosenbluth, A.H.Teller and E. Teller 1953 > The Journal of Chemical Physics, 21, 1087 (1953) > THE paper. Probably THE most important algorithm of the 20th century, often called the M(RT)2 algorith from the names of the authors. (the paper begins in the middle of page 1087) The exact same technique could be used to redistrict for congressional and state districts if you were to treat each voter as a "team". And each district would end up with very close to the same number of voters and those voters would all be close to each other geographically. No more ludicrously shaped districts created totally for the purpose of giving an advantage to the party drawing the lines. Of course you'd need to use the supercomputers at the major universities because even using simulated annealing would take a very long time with several million "teams(voters)" in each state :-D But the neat thing about this is that each party could have a mathematician who liked them run the program and they'd either both get the same answer, or the one with the lower total distance would have the better answer. The fact that this would literally "take politics out of the equation", is probably the reason that it wouldn't be adopted; each party would worry that an honest redistricting could take away "their" safe seats. Enjoy! Jeff Sagarin Top of Page